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Nelson Mandela: A life in pictures
Nelson Mandela and his wife Winnie in this undated file picture.
Thomas Frank walks by the candy-cane-adorned displays of Old Navy, passing the sign exclaiming “priced so low, you can’t say no,” and into the chain’s San Francisco flagship store. The all-devouring Christmas rush hasn’t started yet, but it’s clear from the frown on Frank’s face that he’s not being seduced by the cheap but stylish clothes, the swirling neon and the bass-heavy hip-hop pounding in his ears.
“Oh God, this is disgusting,” Frank says. This reaction isn’t surprising. The bespectacled Midwesterner is a pioneering social critic — one of the first writers to document how, starting in the ’60s, American businesses have co-opted cool anti-corporate culture and used it to seduce the masses. His arguments in the Baffler, a pugnacious review Frank founded in 1988, and in 1997′s “The Conquest of Cool” read like sermons, angry wake-up calls for consumers who hungrily ingest hipper-than-thou (“Think Different”) marketing campaigns without ever questioning their intent.
Old Navy and other cheap but tasteful retailers provide perfect fodder for Frank’s critique. Their low prices and hip-but-wholesome branding strategy are supposed to present a healthy alternative to the conspicuous consumption of a Calvin Klein. But critics like Frank and Naomi Klein, author of “No Logo,” argue that the formula is really nothing more than the wolf of materialism wrapped in cheaper sheep’s clothing.
Consumers are being scammed, says Klein, arguing that stores like Old Navy and Ikea are duping millions, inspiring mass conformity while pretending to deliver high culture to the masses. “It’s this whole idea of creating a carnival for the most homogeneous fashions and furniture,” says Klein. “It’s mass cloning that’s being masked in a carnival of diversity. You don’t notice that you’re conforming because everything is so colorful.”
Klein and Frank say that few consumers recognize just how conformist their consumption habits have become. And certainly, it’s hard to argue that Ikea’s and Old Navy’s items haven’t become icons of urbanite and suburbanite imagination. Watch MTV, or rent “Fight Club,” to see Ikea’s candy-colored décor, then truck down to your local Old Navy flagship store. When you arrive, what you’ll find is that hordes of people have beaten you there. At virtually every opening of Old Navy’s and Ikea’s stores — in the New York, Chicago and San Francisco areas, for example — tens of thousands of people appeared in the first few days. Even now, long after the stores first opened, lines remain long.
What’s wrong with these people? Nothing, say defenders of the companies. The popularity of brands like Ikea and Old Navy, they argue, derives from the retailers’ ability to offer good stuff cheap. “They provide remarkable value,” says Joel Reichart, a professor at the Fordham School of Business who has written case studies on Ikea. “They’re truly satisfying people’s needs.”
Despite his irritation with the way companies like Old Navy market themselves, Frank acknowledges that businesses have always sought to offer cheap, relatively high-quality merchandise and concedes that there is some value in their attempts. He even admits that consumerism is good for the economy.
But he and other critics argue that in the end we’re only being conned into thinking that our needs are being satisfied. What’s really happening, they argue, is that clever marketers are turning us into automatons who equate being cool with buying cheap stuff that everyone else has. Under the stores’ guise of delivering good taste to the general public, any chance we have at experiencing or creating authenticity is being undermined. Ultimately, our brave new shopping world is one in which we are spending more time in the checkout line than reading books, watching movies or otherwise challenging ourselves with real culture.
“Shopping is a way of putting together your identity,” laments “Nobrow” author John Seabrook. And the “homogenized taste” of today’s Old Navy and Ikea shoppers proves, he says, that Americans either are consciously choosing to look and live alike or are determined not to notice that that is what they’re doing.
Consider the numbers. Old Navy now has 580 stores nationwide and is still expanding. The Gap, Old Navy’s parent company, remains convinced that people want more, and it seems to be right. In 1998, when Old Navy opened its first store in downtown Chicago, more than 10,000 people lined up hours before the doors opened. When the San Francisco flagship store opened in 1999, the rush was equally astounding. There were giveaways, rock bands and rabid, clothes-carrying crowds fighting their way to the registers. Never mind that Old Navy carries far fewer pieces of apparel than other comparably sized stores. And never mind that half the clothes are just knockoffs of items available at the Gap. After all, deals are to be had — and shopping at Old Navy is just so cool!
Ikea is an even bigger phenomenon. More than 320 million people worldwide walked through one of the Swedish company’s stores last year. That’s more than seven times the number of people who visited all four of Disney’s theme parks.
Shoppers can claim that they’re just being good consumers — that buying a $179 Poang chair at Ikea is actually ecofriendly. Old Navy shoppers might say they’re just frugal. Not so, according to critics like Christine Rosen, a professor in the Haas School of Business at UC-Berkeley. According to Rosen, people who fill their closets, homes and lives with Old Navy and Ikea — or Pottery Barn or a host of other slick stores — are simply new examples of the trend toward conformity that started when the first “brands” appeared in the 1910s and ’20s, says “We’re Pavlovianly trained to respond to this,” she says.
And we’re also just too damn lazy. That’s the theory floated by Packard Jennings, an anti-consumerism activist who says that stores like Old Navy are designed to numb the brain and remove all semblance of creativity from the purchasing process. “Ikea pre-arranges sets of furniture in its stores, thereby lessening individual thought,” he says. Once people are in the store, they can’t resist. “Entire households are purchased at Ikea,” he says.
Indeed, Janice Simonsen, an Ikea spokeswoman, confirmed that a large part of the chain’s demographic consists of “people who come in and say, ‘I need everything.’” Meanwhile, those who don’t want everything usually end up with more than they need, says Fordham’s Reichart. “The way they design their stores” — with an up escalator to the showroom and no exit until the checkout — “you end up going through the entire store,” he says.
Old Navy plays by the same sneaky rules. When Frank and I entered the San Francisco store, clerks offered us giant mesh bags. Ostensibly, this is just good service, but since the bags are capable of holding at least half a dozen pairs of jeans and a few shirts, it’s obvious that they’re also meant to encourage overconsumption.
Frank called the bags “gross” but not out of line with other state-of-the-art retailing practices. But according to Klein, the sacks, in conjunction with Old Navy’s penchant for displaying T-shirts in mock-1950s supermarket coolers, prove that the company is aiming to do something more. The idea behind this “theater for the brand” architecture is to commodify the products, to make them “as easy to buy as a gallon of milk,” Klein says.
“The idea is to create a Mecca where people make pilgrimages to their brand,” Klein says. “You experience the identity of the brand and not the product.”
Disney, which opened its first store in 1987, was the first to employ this strategy. And since then others have appeared. Niketown, the Body Shop, the Discovery Store — they all aim to sell products by selling a destination.
Old Navy and Ikea, however, are far more popular than those predecessors — and, if you believe the more pessimistic of their critics, more dangerous. Not only are the two chains remaking many closets and homes into one designer showcase, says Klein, but they are also lulling consumers to sleep and encouraging them to overlook some important issues.
Such as quality. People think they’re getting “authenticity on the cheap,” says David Lewis, author of “The Soul of the New Consumer.” But the truth may be that they’re simply purchasing the perception of quality and authenticity. “Because [Ikea and Old Navy] create these self-enclosed lifestyles,” Klein explains, “you overlook the fact that the products are pretty crappy and fall apart.” Adds Jennings, “Things may be cheaper, but you keep going back to replace the faulty merchandise.”
Then there is the trap of materialism. Survey after survey suggests that people who place a high value on material goods are less happy than those who do not, says Eric Rindfleisch, a marketing professor at the University of Arizona. The focus on bargains, incremental purchases and commodification plays to a uniquely American blind spot.
“We operate with a duality,” explains Rindfleisch, who has conducted studies linking materialism with depression. “Americans know that money doesn’t buy happiness, but most people somehow believe that increments in pay or goods will improve our lives. It’s a human weakness — particularly in America.”
The most insidious danger may be more abstract. The anti-consumerism critics argue that by elevating shopping to cultural status, we are losing our grip on real culture. We live in a time where college kids think nothing of decorating their rooms with Absolut vodka ads and fail to realize that they’re essentially turning their rooms into billboards. Meanwhile, museum stores keep getting larger, Starbucks sells branded CDs to go with your coffee and because Ikea and other stores now look like movie theaters or theme parks, we don’t just shop, “we make a day of it,” as Klein puts it.
This only helps steer us away from other endeavors. When people spend so much time buying, thinking and talking about products, they don’t have time for anything else, for real conversations about politics or culture or for real interaction with people.
Ultimately, the popularity of Old Navy, Ikea and their ilk proves that we’re stuck in what Harvard professor Juliet Schor calls “the cycle of work and spend.” Breaking that cycle may not be easy, but if one believes critics like Frank, it’s essential if we are to control our own culture, instead of allowing it to be defined by corporations.
The cycle may not be possible to break. Frank, for one, is extremely pessimistic about our chances for turning back the tide of conformity and co-opted cool. Maybe that’s one reason why he wanted to get out of Old Navy as fast as he could.
But I’m not so sure. When “Ikea boy,” Edward Norton’s character in “Fight Club,” watched his apartment and his Swedish furniture explode in a blaze of glory, I wasn’t the only one in the theater who cheered.
Nelson Mandela and his wife Winnie in this undated file picture.
Mandela is accompanied by his former wife Winnie, moments after his release from prison February 11, 1990 after serving 27 years in jail. (Reuters)
In this February, 1990 photo, shortly after his release from 27 years in prison, Nelson Mandela, gives the black power salute to the 120,000 supporters packing Soccer City stadium in Soweto, near Johannesburg. (AP Photo)
Nelson Mandela showed his passport in February 19, 1990, shortly after his release from prison. The South African government authorized an application for himself and his wife Winnie - (Juda Ngwenya / Reuters)
In this July 27, 1991 photo, Cuban President Fidel Castro, and Nelson Mandela gesture during the celebration of the "Day of the Revolution" in Matanzas, Cuba. (AP Photo)
In this July 4, 1993 photo, President Bill Clinton and Nelson Mandela listen during Fourth of July ceremonies in Philadelphia during which Clinton presented the Philadelphia Liberty Medal to the African National Congress president and South African President F.W. de Klerk. (AP Photo/Greg Gibson)
President of the African National Congress Nelson Mandela acknowledges cheers from the crowd as he prepares to unveil the ANC's official election platform in 1994. (AP Photo/David Brauchli)
African National Congress (ANC) leader Nelson Mandela greeted residents of Mmabatho in March 1994, during a visit after the nominal homeland came under South African control following the ousting of the former President Lucas Mangope. (Reuters/Howard Burditt)
South African President Nelson Mandela smiles with actor Sidney Poitier at a press conference in Cape Town in 1996. Poitier played Mandela in the film "One Man, One Vote" (AP Photo / Sasa Kralj)
South African President Nelson Mandela waves to crowds as he sits next to Queen Elizabeth II in a an open carriage on the way to Buckingham Palace.(AP/Louisa Buller)
Chairman of the Constitutional Assembly Cyril Ramaphosa, left, holds up a copy of the country's constitution which was signed by President Nelson Mandela, in December 1996. (AP Photo / Adil Bradlow / POOL)
Nelson Mandela at a news conference in Johannesburg in February 2000. (AP Photo / Denis Farrell)
South African rugby captain Francois Pienaar, right, received the Rugby World Cup trophy from President Nelson Mandela also wearing a South African rugby shirt, after South Africa defeated New Zealand in the Rugby World Cup , in 1995. (AP Photo / Ross Setford)
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