Space porn: These images are (quite literally) out of this world
Topics: Entertainment News
Brownback Version 2.0
This Act may be cited as the “Consumers, Schools and Libraries Digital Rights Management Awareness Act of 2003.”
SEC. 2. FINDINGS.
Congress finds the following:
(1) It is not in the interest of our nation’s economy, marketplace innovation, nor consumer or educational community welfare for an agency of the federal government to mandate the inclusion of access or redistribution control technologies used with digital media products into consumer electronics products, computer products, or telecommunications and advanced services network facilities and services, except pursuant to a grant of specific and clear authority from Congress and when the mandate is derived from voluntary private-sector efforts that protect the legal, reasonable, and customary practices of consumers.
(2) The limited introduction into commerce of access controlled compact discs has caused some consumer confusion and inconvenience, and has placed increased burdens on retailers, consumer electronics manufacturers, and personal computer manufacturers responding to consumer complaints.
(3) The private and public sectors should work together to prevent future consumer, educational community and industry confusion and inconvenience as legitimate access and redistribution control technologies become increasingly prevalent in the marketplace.
(4) The private sector should make every effort, in a voluntary process, to provide for consumer and educational community awareness and satisfaction as access and redistribution control technology are increasingly deployed in the marketplace.
(5) The Federal Trade Commission, in the absence of successful private sector efforts, should ensure that consumers and the educational community are provided with adequate information with respect to the existence of access and redistribution control technologies in the digital media products they purchase, and how such technologies may implicate their ability to use such products.
(6) It is not in the interests of consumer welfare, privacy, and safety, or for the continued development of the Internet as a communications and economic resource, for the manufacturers of digital media products or their representatives to be permitted to require Internet service providers merely providing subscribers’ with transport for electronic communications to disclose a subscribers’ personally identifiable information, absent due process and independent of the judicial scrutiny required to ensure that such requests are legitimate.
(7) The Federal Trade Commission should ensure that consumers’ welfare, privacy, and safety are protected in regards to requests by manufacturers of digital media products or their representatives for Internet service provider disclosure of subscribers’ personally identifiable information outside of the judicial process.
(8) It is not in the interests of our nation’s economy, marketplace innovation, nor consumer and educational community welfare to permit the advent of access or redistribution control technologies to limit the existence of legitimate secondary markets for digital media products, a traditional form of commerce that is founded in our nation’s economic traditions, provides critical resources for our nation’s educational institutions and libraries, and is otherwise consistent with applicable law.
SECTION 3. PROHIBITION ON FCC TECHNOLOGY MANDATES.
(a) SENSE OF THE SENATE. — It is the sense of the Senate that:
(1) A successful transition to digital television will occur based on the mutual cooperation of all stakeholders, and no one stakeholder’s interests outweigh another’s interests.
(2) The transition to digital television will be successful to the degree it meets consumers’ expectations based on the ways they have come to expect to be able to use over-the-air television in the privacy of their own homes and otherwise.
(3) Digital convergence provides new tools for industry to offer innovative and varied products compared to the traditional analog marketplace, and it also provides consumers with innovative and varied means of using digital content.
(4) A successful transition to digital television will maintain this important balance of interests.
(5) Suggestions that consumers do not have certain expectations in the digital marketplace simply because they have never had access to a particular digital capability, or the expectation of using or relying on such a capability, are not dispositive of reasonable and customary consumer access and use practices.
(b) PROHIBITION ON TECHNOLOGY MANDATES. — Except as specifically authorized by Congress, the Federal Communications Commission may not require a person manufacturing, importing into, offering for sale, license or distribution in, or affecting, interstate commerce in the United States a device, machine, or process designed, manufactured, marketed for the purpose of, or that is capable of rendering, processing, transmitting, receiving or reproducing a digital media product,
(1) to incorporate access control technology, or the ability to respond to such technology, into the design of such a device, machine, or process; or
(2) to incorporate redistribution control technology, or the ability to respond to such technology, into the design of such a device, machine, or process.
(c) FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT PERMITTED. — Congress authorizes the Federal Communications Commission in Media Bureau Docket Number 02-230 to establish functional requirements for redistribution control technology only if-
(1) such a regulation preserves reasonable and customary consumer access and use practices; and
(2) such a regulation does not include requirements that a device, machine, or process designed, manufactured, marketed for the purpose of, or that is capable of rendering, processing, transmitting, receiving or reproducing a digital media product, be manufactured using any particular technology, but only that it conform to the applicable functional requirement relating to redistribution control technology used to prevent illegal redistribution of digital media products to the public over the Internet; and
(3) the Commission will be the sole entity determining whether to approve or reject, utilizing a self-certification process and its existing enforcement authority, a device, machine, or process designed, manufactured, marketed for the purpose of, or that is capable of rendering, processing, transmitting, receiving or reproducing a digital media product, as meeting the functional requirement.
SEC. 4. CONSUMER AND EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY AWARENESS.
(a) CONSUMER AND EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT AWARENESS ADVISORY COMMITTEE. — The Federal Trade Commission shall, as soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act, establish an advisory committee for the purpose of informing the Commission about the ways in which access control technology and redistribution control technology may affect consumer and educational community use of digital media products based on their legal and customary uses of such products, and how consumer and educational community awareness about the existence of such technologies in the digital media products they purchase or otherwise come to legally own may be achieved.
(b) ADVISORY COMMITTEE REQUIREMENTS. — In establishing an advisory committee for purposes of subsection (a) of this section, the Commission shall —
(1) ensure that it includes representatives of radio and television broadcasters, television programming producers, producers of motion pictures, producers of sound recordings, publishers of literary works, producers of video games, cable operators, satellite operators, consumer electronics manufacturers, computer manufacturers, any other appropriate manufacturers of electronic devices capable of utilizing digital media products, telecommunications service providers, advanced service providers, Internet service providers, consumer interest groups, representatives of educational and library communities, and other interested individuals from the private sector, and is fairly balanced in terms of political affiliation, the points of view represented, and the functions to be performed by the committee; and
(2) provide to the committee such staff and resources as may be necessary to permit it to perform is functions efficiently and promptly; and
(3) require the committee to submit a final report, approved by a majority of members, of its recommendations within one year after the date of the appointment of the initial members.
(c) FTC NOTICE AND LABELING. — Except as provided in subsection (d), no person shall offer for sale, license, or use bye a consumer, educational institution, or a library an access controlled digital media product or a redistribution controlled digital media product, unless that person has provided clear and conspicuous notice or a label on the product, at the point of sale or distribution to such consumer, educational institution or library as prescribed by the Federal Trade Commission, that identifies any restrictions the access control technology or redistribution control technology used in or with that digital media product is intended or reasonably could be forseen to have on the consumers’, educational institutions’, or libraries’ use of the product; provided that this subsection shall not apply to a distributor or vendor of a digital media product unless such distributor or vendor has actual knowledge that the product contains or is restricted by access control technology and that the notice or label described in this subsection is not visible to the consumer, educational institution, or library at the point of distribution or transmission.
(d) APPLICABILITY AND EFFECTIVE DATE. — The amendment made by subsection (c) shall take effect 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act unless the Commission determines, in consultation with the advisory committee created in subparagraph (1) of this section, that manufacturers of digital media products have, by such date-
(1) established voluntary rules for notice and labeling of access controlled or redistribution controlled digital media products designed to create consumer and educational community awareness about the ways in which access control technology or redistribution control technology will affect their legal, expected, and customary uses of digital media products; and
(2) agreed voluntarily to implement the rules for notice and labeling of access controlled digital media products or redistribution controlled digital media products, including when both access control technology and redistribution control technology are used in or with digital media products.
SEC. 5. CONSUMER PRIVACY. — In General. — Notwithstanding any other provision of law, an Internet service provider may not be compelled to make available to a manufacturer of a digital media product or its representative the identity or personal information of a subscriber or user of its service for use in enforcing the manufacturer’s rights relating to use of such product on the basis of a subpoena or order issued at the request of the manufacturer or its representative except under a valid subpoena or court order issued at the request of the manufacturer or its representative in a pending civil lawsuit or as otherwise expressly authorized under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure or the civil procedure rules of a State; provided that this provision shall not apply to requests for personal information authorized by another provision of law relating to allegedly unlawful use of a digital media product residing, and not merely stored for a temporary or transient period, on the system or network of the Internet service provider.
SEC. 6. SECONDARY MARKETS FOR USED DIGITAL MEDIA PRODUCTS.
(a) CONSUMER SECONDARY MARKETS. — Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the lawful owner of a digital media product may transmit a copy of that product by means of a transmission to a single recipient as long as the technology used by that person to transmit the copy automatically deletes the digital media product contemporaneously with transmitting the copy.
(b) SECONDARY MARKETS FOR CHARITABLE DONATIONS TO SCHOOLS AND LIBRARIES. — A manufacturer of a digital media product may not incorporate, impose, or attempt to impose any access control technology or redistribution control technology used in or with a digital media product that prevents a consumer from donating digital media products they own to schools or libraries.
(c) NO DISABLING TECHNOLOGY. — A manufacturer of a digital media product may not incorporate, impose, or attempt to impose any access control technology or redistribution control technology used in or with a digital media product that limits consumer resale of a digital media product described in paragraph (a) to specific venues or distribution channels.
SEC. 7. REPORT TO CONGRESS.
Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act, the Federal Trade Commission shall submit to Congress a report containing the following information:
(1) The extent to which access controlled digital media products and redistribution controlled digital media products have entered the market over the preceding 2 years.
(2) The extent to which such digital media products allow consumers, schools, and libraries to engage in all lawful uses of the product, and to which the Commission has received complaints from consumers, schools, and libraries about the implementation of return policies for consumers, schools, and libraries who find that an access controlled digital media product or a redistribution controlled digital media product does not operate properly in a device capable of utilizing the product, or cannot be transmitted lawfully over the Internet under circumstances described in subsection 6.
(3) The extent to which manufacturers and retailers have been burdened by consumer, school, and library returns of devices unable to play or otherwise utilize access controlled digital media products or redistribution controlled digital media products.
(4) The number of enforcement actions taken by the Commission under this Act.
(5) The number of convictions or settlements achieved as a result of those enforcement actions.
(6) The number of requests Internet service providers have received from manufacturers of digital media products or their representatives seeking disclosure of subscribers’ personal information, and the number of electronic requests Internet Service Providers have received from manufacturers of digital media products or their representatives requesting that a subscriber be disconnected from their service outside of any judicial process.
(7) An analysis of the ways consumers, schools, and libraries commonly expect to be able to use digital media products, whether including access control technology or redistribution control technology or otherwise, when they purchase, legally own, or pay to use such products.
(8) Any proposed changes to this Act the Commission believes would enhance enforcement, eliminate consumer, school, and library confusion, or otherwise address concerns raised by consumers and with the Commission under this Act.
SEC. 8. ENFORCEMENT.
(a) ENFORCEMENT BY FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION. –This Act shall be enforced by the Federal Trade Commission.
(b) VIOLATION IS UNFAIR OR DECEPTIVE ACT OR PRACTICE. — The violation of any provision of sections 4, 5 and 6 is an unfair or deceptive act or practice proscribed under section 18(a)(1)(B) of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 57a(a)(1)(B)).
(c) ACTIONS BY THE COMMISSION. — The Commission shall prevent any person from violating sections 4, 5 and 6 of this Act in the same manner, by the same means, and with the same jurisdiction, powers, and duties as though all applicable terms and provisions of the Federal Trade Commission Act (15 U.S.C. 41 et seq.) were incorporated into and made a part of this Act. Any entity that violates any provision of sections 4, 5 and 6 are subject to the penalties and entitled to the privileges and immunities provided in the Federal Trade Commission Act in the same manner, by the same means, and with the same jurisdiction, power, and duties as though all applicable terms and provisions of the Federal Trade Commission Act were in incorporated into and made a part of those sections.
(d) 1 YEAR WINDOW FOR COMPLIANCE. — The Commission may not, less than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, initiate an enforcement action under this section for a violation of section 4.
SEC. 9. DEFINITIONS.
For the purposes of this Act: (1) ACCESS CONTROLLED DIGITAL MEDIA PRODUCT. — The term “access controlled digital media product” means a digital media product, as defined in this section, to which an access control technology has been applied.
(2) ACCESS CONTROL TECHNOLOGY. — The term “access control technology” means a technology or process that controls or inhibits the use, reproduction, display, transmission or resale, or transfer of control of a license to use, of a digital media product.
(3) FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENT. — The term “functional requirement” means any rule or regulation enacted by the Federal Communications Commission that requires a device, machine, or process designed, manufactured, marketed for the purpose of, or that is capable of rendering, processing, transmitting, receiving or reproducing a digital media product to be able to perform certain functions or include certain generic capabilities, independent of any requirement that specific technologies be incorporated to meet the functional requirement.
(4) DIGITAL MEDIA PRODUCT. — In General. — For the purposes of this Act the term “digital media product” means —
(a) literary works;
(b) pictorial and graphic works;
(c) motion pictures and other audiovisual works; and
(d) sound recordings;
that are distributed, broadcast, intended for sale, or licensed on nonnegotiable terms, to the general public, in digital form, either fixed in a physical form or distributed by means of electronic transmission.
(5) INTERNET. –The term “Internet” means collectively the myriad of computer and telecommunications facilities, including equipment and operating software, which comprise the interconnected world-wide network or networks that employ the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or any predecessor or successor protocols to such protocol, to communicate information of all kinds by wire or radio.
(6) PERSONAL INFORMATION. — The term “personal information” has the same meaning given that term in 15 U.S.C. 6501(8), including any other identifier identifiable information about an individual, and including information that an Internet service provider, online service provider, or operator of a commercial website collects and combines with an identifier described in clauses (A) through (F) of 15 U.S.C. 6501(8).
(7) REDISTRIBUTION CONTROLLED DIGITAL MEDIA PRODUCT. — The term “redistribution controlled digital media product” means a digital media product, as defined in this section, to which a redistribution control technology has been applied.
(8) REDISTRIBUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY. — The term “redistribution control technology” means a technology or process that controls or inhibits the transmission of a digital media product over the Internet following its initial receipt by a member of the public, without regard to whether such transmission is for the purpose of use, reproduction, performance, resale, or transfer of a license to use, the digital media product.
NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins
On December 28, 2013, Expedition 38 crew member Mike Hopkins participating in the second of two space walks to replace a degraded pump module on the International Space Station. (NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio is reflected in his helmet!)
The Soyuz TMA-10M
The Soyuz TMA-10M headed towards the International Space Station with crew members from Expedition 37 onboard.
40 years ago the Apollo 8 mission flew up to the moon, orbited it ten times and then returned to Earth. This picture was taken from that flight and shows the Earth as it seemingly rises in similar fashion to a sunrise.
Sunrise from Expedition 36
NASA Flight Engineer Karen L. Nyberg of Expedition 36 took this photo of the sun rising -- a sight they saw nearly 16 times per day due to the speed of the International Space Station's orbit around the earth.
A pair of NanoRacks CubeSats -- nanosattelite spacecrafts carrying experiments -- were launched by Expedition 38.