Space porn: These images are (quite literally) out of this world
The news that the term “negro” has remained on census surveys up until now seems even bigger than the news that the Census Bureau is dropping it. But, as recently as the 2010 census, “negro” appeared as one of five options for respondents to identify their ethnicity.
“Instead of the term that came into use during the Jim Crow era of racial segregation, census forms will use the more modern labels ‘black’ or ‘African-American’,” reported the AP. The terms “black” and “African-American” were already present on recent census surveys, but “negro” was included too, reportedly for the benefit of “a small segment, mostly older blacks living in the South, [who] still identified with the term,” noted the AP.
“The intent of every word on the race and ethnicity questions is to be as inclusive as possible so that all of us could see a word here that rings a bell for us,” Robert Groves, then-Census Bureau director, told journalists in 2010. In the most recent surveys (2010), information provided to the AP indicated that 36,000 people chose to identify as “negro.” However, the term’s inclusion also drew a significant number of complaints.
As the Guardian noted Monday, “the census has a history of inciting controversy over its race-identification section, because it can oppose respondent’s personal feelings about their race.” Via the Guardian:
Until 2000, respondents were not allowed to mark more than one race on the form; in 1960, some census takers could identify people’s race for them. In 2010, people who identified themselves as being of hispanic, latino or Spanish origin had to choose from white, black, American Indian, asian or Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. The census then determined that “hispanic origins are not races”.
In the first census, which was taken in 1790, racial categories were “free white”, “all other free persons” and “slaves.” These divisions continued until race categories were expanded in 1850. “Negro” appeared for the first time in 1900, as “black (or negro or negro descent)”. In 1910 and 1920, those who identified as mixed race had the option of selecting “mulatto”.
Natasha Lennard is an assistant news editor at Salon, covering non-electoral politics, general news and rabble-rousing. Follow her on Twitter @natashalennard, email firstname.lastname@example.org.More Natasha Lennard.
NASA astronaut Mike Hopkins
On December 28, 2013, Expedition 38 crew member Mike Hopkins participating in the second of two space walks to replace a degraded pump module on the International Space Station. (NASA astronaut Rick Mastracchio is reflected in his helmet!)
The Soyuz TMA-10M
The Soyuz TMA-10M headed towards the International Space Station with crew members from Expedition 37 onboard.
40 years ago the Apollo 8 mission flew up to the moon, orbited it ten times and then returned to Earth. This picture was taken from that flight and shows the Earth as it seemingly rises in similar fashion to a sunrise.
Sunrise from Expedition 36
NASA Flight Engineer Karen L. Nyberg of Expedition 36 took this photo of the sun rising -- a sight they saw nearly 16 times per day due to the speed of the International Space Station's orbit around the earth.
A pair of NanoRacks CubeSats -- nanosattelite spacecrafts carrying experiments -- were launched by Expedition 38.