Nelson Mandela: A life in pictures
Nelson Mandela and his wife Winnie in this undated file picture.
The Criminal Investigation Command (CID) materials obtained by Salon include a seven-page Forensic Report of Abu Ghraib Photos. This report indicates that CID’s Computer Crime Investigative Unit examined “approximately 14,972 files and directories” as part of its investigation. The report concludes that “An examination of these files revealed approximately 280 individual digital photos and 19 digital movies depicting possible detainee abuse…”
The report describes its organization of those 280 photos as follows: “A visual examination of the photos revealed several incidents where more than one camera was used to take photographs of the incidents. This allowed for establishing a probable timeline of the incidents based on time and date stamps found inside the digital image. A photo log and slide presentation was generated to graphically depict the timeline.”
This photo log and slide presentation are also among the CID materials obtained by Salon. The photo log is a 140-page Microsoft Word document and the slide presentation is a 14-slide Microsoft PowerPoint document. There are no official dates on the photo log or timeline themselves, but to the best of our knowledge the files were last updated on July 8, 2004.
Salon’s photo gallery is organized according to the chronology and descriptive information presented in the photo log and timeline documents.
Photos and videos
The photo gallery includes 279 photos that the CID review determined to depict detainee abuse. The images are organized into chapters according to the date they were taken or the type of events they depict; within each chapter the photos appear in chronological order. The organization of the chapters closely follows the structure of CID’s timeline document.
The video gallery includes the 19 videos that the CID review determined to depict detainee abuse. Still-frame shots from 15 of the 19 videos appear on the timeline document, which indicates the approximate time and date at which those videos were taken. The remaining four videos do not appear on the timeline, but seem to depict an event that is also documented by photos in Chapter 7. This information enabled us to construct an approximate chronological order for the videos, and the videos appear in this approximate chronological order.
The photos and videos appear exactly as Salon received them, except where detainees’ faces have been obscured to protect their privacy. Additionally, in a few cases we have rotated an image by 90 or 180 degrees to make it easier to view. A few of the photos are grainy or hard to make out, or are so similar to one another that they appear to be duplicates; these images have been included in the gallery because they were included in the set of images that CID determined to depict detainee abuse.
The photo gallery captions were assembled using information taken from CID’s photo log document. The photo log provides information for each of the 280 photos that CID identified as depicting detainee abuse, including a synopsis of the events taking place in each photo; the names and ID numbers of detainees pictured; the names of soldiers pictured; the make and model of the camera with which the photo was taken; the time and date at which the camera recorded the picture being taken (“Camera date/time”); and, because camera clocks are often incorrect, CID’s adjusted estimate of the actual time in Baghdad, Iraq, when the photo was taken (“Baghdad date/time”).
The captions were taken verbatim (with a few exceptions; see below) from the photo log, using each photo’s Baghdad date/time, synopsis, and soldier information. No corrections were made for spelling or style.
Minor alterations were made to the captions in the following manner:
Summary of photos and camera and soldier information
The italicized section at the beginning of each chapter essay is written by Salon staff and describes the photos appearing in that chapter. In addition to providing a general summary of the events depicted in the chapter, each italicized section identifies the camera or cameras used to take the photos, based on camera information provided by the photo log and Forensic Report of Abu Ghraib Photos. The forensic report describes how CID determined which images came from which camera:
“Examination of the 280 digital photos revealed that each of the digital photographs had EXIF embedded metadata. Examination of the metadata revealed the photos were created by five separate digital cameras. The embedded metadata showed the make and model of the camera as well as the camera date and time when the picture was taken. The following is a breakout of the number of images taken by each camera and the probably [sic] owner based on image analysis:
“Camera # of Images Probable Owner
FDMavica — 173 Images — GRANER
Deluxe Classic Cam — 55 Images — FREDERICK
Cybershot — 44 Images — HARMAN
Zoran COACH — 6 Images — Unknown
HP PhotoSmart — 5 Images — Unknown”
The italicized sections also list the names of soldiers and civilians who appear in that chapter’s photos. For cases in which we feel certain of a soldier’s identity, we have presented his or her full name and the rank he or she held at the time the photo was taken. For cases in which we feel uncertain about soldiers’ or civilians’ identities, we have identified them exactly as CID identifies them in the photo log and timeline documents.
The italicized text in Chapter 10 describes the content of the 19 videos in that chapter. Any additional information on the videos’ date, time or camera information appears in the video captions.
Sourcing for chapter essays
The essays that accompany each chapter are written by Salon staff and draw from numerous sources.
– Jeanne Carstensen and Page Rockwell
Nelson Mandela and his wife Winnie in this undated file picture.
Mandela is accompanied by his former wife Winnie, moments after his release from prison February 11, 1990 after serving 27 years in jail. (Reuters)
In this February, 1990 photo, shortly after his release from 27 years in prison, Nelson Mandela, gives the black power salute to the 120,000 supporters packing Soccer City stadium in Soweto, near Johannesburg. (AP Photo)
Nelson Mandela showed his passport in February 19, 1990, shortly after his release from prison. The South African government authorized an application for himself and his wife Winnie - (Juda Ngwenya / Reuters)
In this July 27, 1991 photo, Cuban President Fidel Castro, and Nelson Mandela gesture during the celebration of the "Day of the Revolution" in Matanzas, Cuba. (AP Photo)
In this July 4, 1993 photo, President Bill Clinton and Nelson Mandela listen during Fourth of July ceremonies in Philadelphia during which Clinton presented the Philadelphia Liberty Medal to the African National Congress president and South African President F.W. de Klerk. (AP Photo/Greg Gibson)
President of the African National Congress Nelson Mandela acknowledges cheers from the crowd as he prepares to unveil the ANC's official election platform in 1994. (AP Photo/David Brauchli)
African National Congress (ANC) leader Nelson Mandela greeted residents of Mmabatho in March 1994, during a visit after the nominal homeland came under South African control following the ousting of the former President Lucas Mangope. (Reuters/Howard Burditt)
South African President Nelson Mandela smiles with actor Sidney Poitier at a press conference in Cape Town in 1996. Poitier played Mandela in the film "One Man, One Vote" (AP Photo / Sasa Kralj)
South African President Nelson Mandela waves to crowds as he sits next to Queen Elizabeth II in a an open carriage on the way to Buckingham Palace.(AP/Louisa Buller)
Chairman of the Constitutional Assembly Cyril Ramaphosa, left, holds up a copy of the country's constitution which was signed by President Nelson Mandela, in December 1996. (AP Photo / Adil Bradlow / POOL)
Nelson Mandela at a news conference in Johannesburg in February 2000. (AP Photo / Denis Farrell)
South African rugby captain Francois Pienaar, right, received the Rugby World Cup trophy from President Nelson Mandela also wearing a South African rugby shirt, after South Africa defeated New Zealand in the Rugby World Cup , in 1995. (AP Photo / Ross Setford)