For more than 50 years, "Sesame Street" has been imparting valuable moral, ethical, and social lessons to young audiences using a sprawling cast of puppets. The "Sesame" characters — Big Bird, Elmo, Oscar the Grouch, Cookie Monster, Bert and Ernie, the Count, and others — have become instantly recognizable to generations of viewers. But behind every memorable character is a human performer, one tasked with juggling the technical demands of puppet operation without losing the humor and heart that makes their furry counterpart so memorable.
To get a better sense of what goes into this unique skill set, Mental Floss spoke with three veteran "Sesame Street" performers. Here's what they had to say about crossed puppet eyes, grooming habits, and enjoying a long career finessing felt.
1. "Sesame Street" puppeteers usually get started lending a (right) hand
Though there's no definitive set of directions for puppeteers to get to "Sesame Street," a number of performers selected to work on the show begin as apprentices with one specific task: operating the right hand of characters alongside the veteran cast members. "A lot of performers will almost only do right hands for a very long time," Ryan Dillon, the puppeteer behind Elmo, tells Mental Floss. "Some characters, like Cookie Monster, require two performers with two practical hands."
Dillon started working on "Sesame Street" in 2005 at the age of 17. He performed as a right hand and as various supporting characters for years before scoring the Elmo role in 2013. Throughout that training, he accompanied the main puppeteer, who uses their dominant (usually right) hand to control the mouth and the other to control the left hand. The newcomer will manipulate the right, a duty informally known as right handing. "It's a great training ground," Dillon says. "You're working directly next to a performer with years of experience. You become one character together."
2. "Sesame Street" puppeteers have trick for making their characters emote
Peter Linz, who portrays Ernie (among other characters) on the series, tells Mental Floss that getting a puppet to exhibit a personality takes some finessing. "You have to show the entire range of human emotion through something that doesn't have an expression," he says. Linz, who also teaches classes on puppeteering, says that there are some techniques to get puppets to show off their mood, however. "You can make them look sad by having them look down. You can get them to smile by opening their mouth. If they're angry, maybe you close their mouth and then shake their arms ever so slightly. There are degrees of subtlety in all of that."
Linz says the audience does part of that work themselves, projecting their own feelings onto a puppet. The ultimate proof might be in the example of Miss Piggy. While not a "Sesame Street" cast member, Linz says it's telling that people often seem to believe the vivacious and flirtatious porcine character bats her eyes. "She can't," he says. The puppet doesn't have that ability.
3. Not all "Sesame Street" puppets can perform the same tasks
"Sesame Street" utilizes three major varieties of character. There's the full-body puppet, like Big Bird and Snuffleupagus; "bag" puppets with two articulated hands, like Cookie Monster; and hand-and-rod puppets that have arms controlled by thin rods. "Elmo is a hand-and-rod puppet," Dillon says. "[The difference means] some puppets can do things others can't. Cookie Monster can pick things up. Elmo can, but it takes longer. You need to stop [filming] and attach something to his hands with tape or a pin."
4. "Sesame Street" puppeteers rely on a key design element to connect to their audience
It can be difficult to communicate that a puppet is able to focus a pair of fixed eyes on something, whether it's another character, an object, or the audience. But Linz says that the "Sesame Street" crew and the rest of the Muppets were designed by Henson with that in mind. "The eyes are just two black dots against a white background," he says. "But all the characters are ever so slightly cross-eyed. There's a triangle between the eyes and nose and a point where it looks like they're looking right into the camera." It's a sensitive illusion. Turning the puppet even slightly, he says, and they will wind up looking at something else.
5. "Sesame Street" puppeteers can spend their entire day crouched on the floor
Being a "Sesame Street" puppeteer requires more than just having performing chops. On set, characters that may be at waist level with their human co-stars are operated by performers crouched below frame, often on wheeled boards called rollies. "The first day or two, your back and everything else is sore," Dillon says. "It engages your whole body. Your arm is up in the air performing." Some actors, Dillon says, have developed knee issues as a result of a career bent over. Fortunately, not every scene requires contortions. Some sets are built raised so performers can stand up straight. Other times, they'll have to situate themselves horizontally. Scenes set on a stoop usually mean the performer is lying down behind the steps.
6. "Sesame Street puppeteers have input into character design
Lurking in the offices of Sesame Workshop is a puppet factory that, according to Dillon, houses a number of "Anything Muppets" — blank designs that may one day be used as the template for a brand-new character. In 1991, performer Carmen Osbahr got an opportunity to get in on the ground floor of conceptualizing a character when she helped originate Rosita (top right), the first regular bilingual Muppet on the series. "They had a meeting and asked what I had in mind," Osbahr tells Mental Floss. "I was able to tell them I wanted a monster and I wanted live hands because I wanted to be able to play a musical instrument. I wanted her to be active and colorful. I didn't want a petite, tiny little monster." Both Osbahr and Rosita have been a presence on the show ever since.
7. "Sesame Street" puppeteers have material for a blooper reel, but you'll probably never see it
Puppet manipulation takes concentration and effort. Occasionally, the cast of "Sesame Street" can find themselves flubbing a take. According to Osbahr, that's often due to trying to coordinate left and right hands. "The main thing is props," she says. "Grabbing stuff is easy, but if you want to pour something into a cup or write a letter, that's hard. You think you'll have a glass but just miss it." Performers can also fall off their rollies, sending their counterparts tumbling out of the frame.
8. Each "Sesame Street" character has a dedicated puppeteer — with a couple of exceptions
When it comes to "Sesame Street" characters, there is one sacrosanct rule — aside from right handing, no puppet will have more than one puppeteer. "We feel strongly each Muppet has a dedicated performer," Dillon says. "If there were two or three Elmos, you would see a copy of a copy." However, illnesses or personal appearances can make that rule difficult to follow every time. If Dillon can't make a shoot, a performer will step in to operate the puppet, with Dillon going in to provide the voice later.
The cast can also cover for one another if a scene requires two characters who are normally operated by the same actor. Both Bert and Grover, for example, are played by actor Eric Jacobson. If the two share screen time, Dillon might step in to perform one of them, with Jacobson recording his lines later.
9. "Sesame Street" puppeteers have a specific way of handling their puppets to keep them clean
Day after day of manipulating puppets can lead to issues with cleanliness. Performer sweat can dampen the foam insides, while body oils and other contaminants can affect their fur coats. To avoid being dirtied, Linz says performers and production members try to pick up the puppets by the scruff of their necks. "We don't want to put our oily hands on their faces," Linz says. Puppets are also usually delivered to and from the set by a team of "Muppet wranglers," and stored in the workshop where they're built and maintained. To dry out a puppet, they're sometimes placed on a wooden stand. A hair dryer set on low might also be used to dry a sweaty interior.
10. "Sesame Street" puppeteers work very, very closely together
Owing to the frequent proximity of puppets in frame, "Sesame Street" puppeteers are usually working near or virtually over other performers. "We try to be very aware and conscious of the people around us," Dillon says. "Mistakes happen. Elmo has big feet, and Abby Cadabby has big feet, so you'll often hit the other person with a foot. It doesn't hurt."
11. Guest stars will talk directly to "Sesame Street" characters — not just the puppeteers
"Sesame Street" has played host to many guest stars over the decades, from actors to First Lady Michelle Obama. According to Osbahr, their human guests will often address the character even off-camera. "Most everybody who visits us talks to the character like they're alive," she says. "The moment we bring a character down [to rest], we have a conversation, but it's great to have a relationship with a character and a celebrity. They'll talk to Elmo, Rosita, Cookie Monster, and we're talking to them right back."
12. "Sesame Street" puppeteers can take years to get fully comfortable with a character
For many performers, it can take years before they feel like they're fully inhabiting their character. "You can be so focused on doing something right, you forget to have fun with the character," Osbahr says. "By the fourth season, that's when I started letting go, taking risks, having fun. You stop having to think about it."
Fortunately, it's not uncommon for performers on "Sesame Street" to spend decades on the show, which means there's plenty of time to adjust. Carol Spinney, who portrayed Big Bird and Oscar the Grouch, retired in 2018 after 49 years as a cast member. Osbahr says the familial atmosphere encourages longevity. "I've been with this group of people for 30 years," she says. "We've shared a lot of incredible memories together."
13. "Sesame Street" puppeteers can sometimes mourn a puppet who is declared "toast"
Made of foam and other delicate materials, "Sesame Street" puppets have a shelf life. Depending on use, wear, and handling, they might last a few years before needing to be replaced. Linz says two new Ernies have recently been made after one began sloughing off foam inside, a symptom the production calls "toast" because the foam resembles toast crumbs.
Even with replacements, the legacy of characters can still live on. Linz uses an Ernie with the same mouth plate that was used by Jim Henson as far back as 1982.
14. "Sesame Street' puppeteers have to work backward
The most surprising aspect of working as a "Sesame Street" puppeteer? According to Linz, it's the fact that performers often have to essentially work backwards. Because they're crouched below the camera frame, puppeteers need to watch a monitor placed low to the ground to see what the camera sees. "When you move your arm to the right, the arm on the monitor moves to the left," he says. "You're seeing the image the audience sees."
15. Yes, "Sesame Street" puppets are technically muppets
Sometimes there's confusion over whether the puppets that appear on "Sesame Street" actually constitute Muppets, or whether that term is reserved for non-"Sesame" projects like "The Muppet Show" or other endeavors featuring Kermit, Miss Piggy, and the others. According to Dillon, any Henson-birthed or -inspired puppet is a Muppet. "It's become a catch-all term for puppets," he says. "It's a brand name, like Kleenex. Jim Henson came up with the name. A Muppet is used for characters that he came up with."
A version of this article originally ran in 2019; it has been updated for 2021.